1. Introduction
  1. Risk Management

  2. Who Are You, and Why Are You Here?

  3. Finding a Solution

2. Problem Definition
  1. What Needs Protecting?

  2. Who is Allowed Where?

3. Methods of Identification
  1. Reliability vs. Cost

  2. Combining Methods to Increase Reliability

  3. Security System Management

4. Access Control
  1. What You Have

  2. What You Know

  3. Who You Are

5. Other Security Systems Elements

  1. Building Design

  2. Piggybacking and Tailgating: Mantraps

  3. Camera Surveillance

  4. Security Guards

  5. Sensors and Alarms

  6. Visitors

6. The Human Element
  1. People: The Weakest Link

  2. People: The Strongest Backup

7. Site Design
  1. Layers

  2. Components

  3. Tactics

8. Controlling Site Access
  1. Entry Control Facility

  2. Zones of an Entry Control Facility

  3. Utilities and Automatition

9. Chosing the Right Solution
  1. Risk Tolerance vs. Cost

  2. Security System Design Considerations

  3. Building Security Design Considerations

Piggybacking and Tailgating: Mantraps

A common and frustrating loophole in otherwise secure access control systems can be the ability of an unauthorized person to follow through a checkpoint behind an authorized person (called piggybacking when the authorized person is complicit i.e., holds the door or tailgating if the unauthorized person slips through undetected). The traditional solution is an airlock-style arrangement called a mantrap having doors at entry and exit, with room for only one person in the space between the doors. Mantraps can be designed with access control for both entry and exit, or for exit only in which case a failed attempt to exit the enclosure causes the entry door to lock and an alert to be issued indicating that an intruder has been caught. A footstepdetecting floor can be added to confirm there is only one person passing through.

A new technology for solving this problem uses an overhead camera for optical tracking and tagging of individuals as they pass, issuing an alert if it detects more than one person per authorized entry.

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