1. Introduction
  1. Risk Management

  2. Who Are You, and Why Are You Here?

  3. Finding a Solution

2. Problem Definition
  1. What Needs Protecting?

  2. Who is Allowed Where?

3. Methods of Identification
  1. Reliability vs. Cost

  2. Combining Methods to Increase Reliability

  3. Security System Management

4. Access Control
  1. What You Have

  2. What You Know

  3. Who You Are

5. Other Security Systems Elements

  1. Building Design

  2. Piggybacking and Tailgating: Mantraps

  3. Camera Surveillance

  4. Security Guards

  5. Sensors and Alarms

  6. Visitors

6. The Human Element
  1. People: The Weakest Link

  2. People: The Strongest Backup

7. Site Design
  1. Layers

  2. Components

  3. Tactics

8. Controlling Site Access
  1. Entry Control Facility

  2. Zones of an Entry Control Facility

  3. Utilities and Automatition

9. Chosing the Right Solution
  1. Risk Tolerance vs. Cost

  2. Security System Design Considerations

  3. Building Security Design Considerations

Site Design - 3 - Tactics

3.1 Tactic: Vehicle Bombs

Stationary Vehicle Bombs:
• With stationary bombs the aggressor doesn’t attempt to crash through barriers
• Attempt to get as close the facility as possible with out risking detection
• Historically, the most common type of vehicle bomb attack

Moving Vehicle Bombs:
• Aggressor is willing to crash through barriers to reach facility
• Perimeter defining standoff must be capable of stopping the threat vehicle
For both cases, standoff distance is the best mitigation

For stationary vehicle bomb:
• Boundary is defined such that a vehicle crossing boundary draws attention and initiates response force action
• Maximize distance from parking areas

For moving vehicle bomb:
• Boundary must resist the vehicle
• Determine design speed based on roadway layout
• Minimize direct approaches
• Define passive and active barriers

3.2 Tactic: Exterior Attack

This tactic is mainly focused on small improvised explosive devices
The site design can incorporate a exclusive standoff zone to keep aggressors away from the building and limit their ability to place devices near the building or throw devices towards the building
Clear zone can also be provided around the building so that devices are easier to detect.

3.3 Tactic: Standoff Weapons

Standoff weapons include mortars, RPGs, and ballistics

Site Design Considerations:
• Minimize Vantage Points, locate facility far from vantage points
• Consider potential use of predetonation screen (for RPGs) as perimeter barrier defining standoff if that is applicable tactic
• Use of obstruction screens or landscaping to block sightlines

3.4 Tactic: Forced Entry

Tactic involves various levels of tools and explosives to attempt to breach the security of the facility.

Site Design Considerations:
• Clear zone, avoid features that provide concealment for aggressors
• Avoid siting the facility near utility passages that may aid aggressor or secure the utility access points
• Focus on security lighting to support IDS
• Provide additional fencing or barrier at facility perimeter if necessary
• Significant distance between first detection layer and building causes
delay and exposes aggressor to further detection possibilities

3.5 Tactic: Visual Surveillance, Eavesdropping

Similar to standoff weapons, you want to eliminate or control vantage points including nearby buildings
Provide clear zone adjacent to buildings so aggressors can’t hide near the building
Consider using perimeter barrier to provide concealment and obscure assets

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