1. Introduction
  1. Risk Management

  2. Who Are You, and Why Are You Here?

  3. Finding a Solution

2. Problem Definition
  1. What Needs Protecting?

  2. Who is Allowed Where?

3. Methods of Identification
  1. Reliability vs. Cost

  2. Combining Methods to Increase Reliability

  3. Security System Management

4. Access Control
  1. What You Have

  2. What You Know

  3. Who You Are

5. Other Security Systems Elements

  1. Building Design

  2. Piggybacking and Tailgating: Mantraps

  3. Camera Surveillance

  4. Security Guards

  5. Sensors and Alarms

  6. Visitors

6. The Human Element
  1. People: The Weakest Link

  2. People: The Strongest Backup

7. Site Design
  1. Layers

  2. Components

  3. Tactics

8. Controlling Site Access
  1. Entry Control Facility

  2. Zones of an Entry Control Facility

  3. Utilities and Automatition

9. Chosing the Right Solution
  1. Risk Tolerance vs. Cost

  2. Security System Design Considerations

  3. Building Security Design Considerations

Utilities for Entry Control Facilities


Central duress alarm to signal emergency dispatch or control center. Activates automatically with active barrier system.


Water/wastewater to minimize security personnel time away from post.


Telephone, including emergency ring down connection to emergency dispatch or control center
Radio capability coordinated with security

Information Technology

To support potential computerized identification systems, ECF should be connected to installation wide IT system.


ECF should be provided with an alternate power source
Generator should support lighting and equipment
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) may be necessary during generator starting and load transfer
UPS would support any computerized equipment to avoid power disruption

Exterior Lighting:

Lighting levels based on IESNA security lighting guidelines:
Roadway lighting in the approach and response zones;

Area lighting in the access control zone; transitions between:

Consider restart/restrike time in design:
Limit glare and adaptation effects:
Color rendition important for Ops/CCTV:

Automation of Entry Control Facilities

Note that gatehouse is the control center:
Illustrates key locations for spare conduit and handholes to support access control technology

Automation for ECF includes identification of personnel and vehicles.

Deployment of automation is just beginning with many clients.

Main drivers:

Support security personnel in task of identification and inspection
Attempt to increase throughput to balance security with traffic demands during peak times

Approach Zone Automation:

Validation of Vehicle utilizing Radio Frequency Identification System(RFIDS) which utilizes radio waves to identify vehicles and eliminates the need for line of site required for the conventional vehicle access credentials. Typically RFID sensor will associated with a barrier in the Approach zone to validate vehicle prior to arriving at Access Zone.

Wrong way detection and speed detection for outbound lanes, Speed detection for inbound lanes.

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