1. Introduction
  1. Risk Management

  2. Who Are You, and Why Are You Here?

  3. Finding a Solution

2. Problem Definition
  1. What Needs Protecting?

  2. Who is Allowed Where?

3. Methods of Identification
  1. Reliability vs. Cost

  2. Combining Methods to Increase Reliability

  3. Security System Management

4. Access Control
  1. What You Have

  2. What You Know

  3. Who You Are

5. Other Security Systems Elements

  1. Building Design

  2. Piggybacking and Tailgating: Mantraps

  3. Camera Surveillance

  4. Security Guards

  5. Sensors and Alarms

  6. Visitors

6. The Human Element
  1. People: The Weakest Link

  2. People: The Strongest Backup

7. Site Design
  1. Layers

  2. Components

  3. Tactics

8. Controlling Site Access
  1. Entry Control Facility

  2. Zones of an Entry Control Facility

  3. Utilities and Automatition

9. Chosing the Right Solution
  1. Risk Tolerance vs. Cost

  2. Security System Design Considerations

  3. Building Security Design Considerations

What Needs Protecting?

The first step in mapping out a security plan is just that — drawing a map of the physical facility and identifying the areas and entry points that need different rules of access, or levels of security.

These areas might have concentric boundaries:

  • Site perimeter
  • Building perimeter
  • Computer area
  • Computer rooms
  • Equipment racks

Or side-by-side boundaries:

  • Visitor areas
  • Offices
  • Utility rooms

Concentric areas can have different or increasingly stringent access methods, providing added protection called depth of security. With depth of security, an inner area is protected both by its own access methods and by those of the areas that enclose it. In addition, any breach of an outer area can be met with another access challenge at a perimeter further in.

Rack-Level Security At the innermost “depth of security” layer — further in than the data room itself — is the rack. Rack locks are not in common use (yet), but if used they serve as the last defense against unauthorized access to critical equipment. It would be unusual for everyone in a room full of racks to have the need to access every rack; rack locks can ensure that only server people have access to servers, only telecommunications people have access to telecommunications gear, and so on. “Manageable” rack locks that can be remotely configured to allow access only when needed — to specific people at specific times — reduce the risk of an accident, sabotage, or unauthorized installation of additional gear that could cause a potentially damaging rise in power consumption and rack temperature.

Infrastructure Security It is important to include in the security map not only areas containing the functional IT equipment of the facility, but also areas containing elements of the physical infrastructure which, if compromised, could result in downtime. For example, HVAC equipment could be accidentally or deliberately shut down, generator starting batteries could be stolen, or a system management console could be fooled into thinking the fire sprinklers should be activated.

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