1. Authentication
  1. Brute Force

  2. Insufficient Authentication

  3. Weak Password Recovery Validation

2. Authorization
  1. Credential/Session Prediction

  2. Insufficient Authorization

  3. Insufficient Session Expiration

  4. Session Fixation

3. Client-side Attacks
  1. Content Spoofing

  2. Cross-site Scripting

4. Command Execution
  1. Buffer Overflow
  2. Format String Attack
  3. LDAP Injection
  4. OS Commanding
  5. SQL Injection
  6. SSI Injection
  7. XPath Injection
5. Information Disclosure
  1. Directory Indexing

  2. Information Leakage

  3. Path Traversal

  4. Predictable Resource Location

6. Logical Attacks
  1. Abuse of Functionality

  2. Denial of Service

  3. Insufficient Anti-automation

  4. Insufficient Process Validation

Insufficient Process Validation

Insufficient Process Validation is when a web site permits an attacker to bypass or circumvent the intended flow control of an application. If the user state through a process is not verified and enforced, the web site could be vulnerable to exploitation or fraud.

When a user performs a certain web site function, the application may expect the user to navigate through a specific order sequence. If the user performs certain steps incorrectly or out of order, a data integrity error occurs. Examples of multi-step processes include wire transfer, password recovery, purchase checkout, account signup, etc. These processes will likely require certain steps to be performed as expected.

For multi-step processes to function properly, web sites are required to maintain user state as the user traverses the process flow. Web sites will normally track a users state through the use of cookies or hidden HTML form fields. However, when tracking is stored on the client side within the web browser, the integrity of the data must be verified. If not, an attacker may be able to circumvent the expected traffic flow by altering the current state.

An online shopping cart system may offer to the user a discount if product A is purchased. The user may not want to purchase product A, but product B. By filling the shopping cart with product A and product B, and entering the checkout process, the user obtains the discount. The user then backs out of the checkout process, and removes product A, or simply alters the values before submitting to the next step. The user then reenters the checkout process, keeping the discount already given in the previous checkout process with product A in the shopping cart, and obtains a fraudulent purchase price.


"Dos and Don'ts of Client Authentication on the Web", Kevin Fu, Emil
Sit, Kendra Smith, Nick Feamster - MIT Laboratory for Computer Science

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