Security measures for the Water Industry:
Lighting can be an important security measure, but if incorrectly used may assist an intruder. Ideally a security lighting system should:
- deter intrusion, or at least reduce an intruder's freedom of action
- assist in the detection of intruders either by direct vision or by Closed Circuit Television
- conceal guards and patrols
It is often impossible to achieve all these aims and one or more may have to be maximized at the expense of others.
The guard plan, CCTV and lighting requirement must be carefully coordinated taking account of the following rules:
- lighting should not illuminate guards or patrols
- lighting should support guards and CCTV
- it should not cause nuisance or hazards
- it must be cost-effective and compatible with site conditions
- an even level of illumination is more important than absolute light levels. This prevents dark areas in which intruders can lurk.
1.1 Perimeter lighting
This provides a well-lit area in the form of a strip around the perimeter. To be effective an intruder must have to pass through this well-lit area. The lighting column should not be an aid to scaling the fence. 1.2 Area lighting
This generally refers to the areas around buildings within the protected area. The aim is to produce even illumination without dense shadows.
This is used to cast a strong light on the walls of buildings so that intruders are visible either in silhouette or by the shadows which they cast. Lights should be mounted up high, out of reach of intruders.
1.4 Gatehouse lighting
This is used at the perimeter entrance and gatehouse in order to: • reveal approaching vehicles and pedestrians and allow guards to identify them, verify passes, carry out vehicle searches, and • conceal guards within the gatehouse while allowing them to see out.
1.5 Topping up lighting
This is used to eliminate dark areas not adequate lit by area or floodlighting. Such areas may be lit locally by small light fittings for example bulkhead fittings or from a distance by narrow angle flood lights.
- Physical screening
The requirement of wearing ID’s is a significant deterrent . Routine searching and patrolling of premises represents another level of screening covering both internal and external areas. Keep the patrols regular, but not too predictable.
Ensure that all sources of incoming mail (e.g. U.S. Mail, couriers, hand delivery) are included in your screening process. The first line of defense is a suitably located, equipped, and operated post room. In addition, all staff who receive mail or other deliveries should be aware of the possible indicators that a delivered item may be of concern as well as how to act upon the discovery of any suspicous delivered item.
- Closed circuit television (CCTV)
In its simplest form a CCTV system consists of a television camera joined by a transmission link such as a cable to a monitor sited in the guard room or central control point. More complex systems use several cameras and monitors or a single monitor with a switching system to display camera pictures in sequence. Additional facilities such as recorders, automatic switching in response to an alarm signal may be used.
CCTV should form part of the total security system and should not be used on its own. It cannot replace security staff, although it may permit a reduction in their number or their redeployment to other security activities.
Using CCTV can help clarify whether a security alert is real and is often vital in post-incident investigations, but only if the images are good enough to identify what happened and be used in court.
External lighting will help security staff and improve the capabilities of CCTV systems if it is carefully designed and used. Effective CCTV systems may help to deter a terrorist attack or even identify planning activity. Good quality images can provide crucial evidence in court.
- Traffic and parking controls
If you believe you might be at risk from a vehicle bomb, the basic principle is to keep all vehicles at a safe distance. Those requiring essential access should be identified in advance and checked before being allowed through.
If possible, you should ensure that you have proper access control, careful landscaping, traffic-calming measures and robust, well-lit barriers or bollards. Ideally, keep non-essential vehicles at least 100 feet from your building.